There is a large gap between engineering courses in tensor algebra on one hand, and the treatment of linear transformations within classical linear algebra on the other. This book addresses primarily engineering students with some initial knowledge of matrix algebra. Thereby, mathematical formalism is applied as far as it is absolutely necessary. Numerous exercises provided in the book are accompanied by solutions enabling autonomous study. The last chapters deal with modern developments in the theory of isotropic and anisotropic tensor functions and their applications to continuum mechanics and might therefore be of high interest for PhD-students and scientists working in this area.