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A Handbook of Phonetics
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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1877 edition. Excerpt: ...glide, this last variety is often modified into a compromise between (i) and (3), formed by beginning to narrow the glottis during the end of the consonant itself, so that the transition from breath to voice is completed just before beginning the glide. 231. If we compare these three varieties we find that they all agree in having voiced glides, and that in (2) the consonant itself is fully voiced, in (i) gradually voiced, and in (3) breathed. 232. The E. (z) in 'zeal' may be fully voiced, but is generally only gradually voiced. The half-voiced (z) seems to be the N. G. and Dutch initial (s), as in 'so,' 'zoo.' To an E. ear it sounds like (sz). 233. Final (z) may also be either fully vocalised throughout, or else gradually devocalised, passing from voice to whisper while the consonant position is still being maintained. Both may be heard (but generally the latter) in the E. 'is,' &c. In final buzzes after other voice consonants the gradual devocalisation is very clearly marked in E. Thus in the final buzz in 'bills,' 'thieves,' 'adze,' &c., the vocality is of so short duration that the final (z) is almost a purely whispered consonant'. 234. In this last case the glottis is not fully opened till the consonant is finished, which therefore consists of voice passing into whisper, followed by a breath-glide. Cp. § 236. If the transition from voice to breath is completed during the beginning of the consonant itself, we have the Icelandic final (s), 'is,' 'las,' &c.r which sounds like (zs). 235. The vowel-like consonants when final occasionally end in a breath-glide. Thus, in pronouncing final (1) in Icelandic, the glottis opens just as the tongue is removed from the palate, making the resulting flap voiceless, as in...
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